The Mongolian Doctor and the Mongolian Medicine
The Mongolian nationality has lived on the grassland for hundreds of generations, and they made their livings on nomadism. In the long course of fighting against nature and illness, they have accumulated many unique theories on medicine and treatment, which has made great contribution to the enrichment and development of our country’s medicine and sanitation industry.
As early as 13th century, the Mongols had invented and utilized many medicament and therapeutics which fitted the mode of the production, the lifestyle and the geographic and climate features of that time, like the strong medicine which is named “hedier”, moxibustion, bath treatment, bonesetting, traumatism treatment, koumiss treatment, diet treatment and so on. Among them, the bonesetting method, the smoke fomentation, cows and sheep’s rumen ruminating fomentation, hot blood soak treatment etc. are very practical and effective. The moxibustion and fomentation had even been spread to the backland and Tibet. After the 13th century, as the economic and cultural communication between the Mongol nationality and other nationalities, Arab, European countries increased, some medicine and treatment had also been spread into the Mongolian area, which enriched and developed their knowledge in medical treatment and medicament.
In Ming and Qing dynasty, the Mongolian medicine also absorbed the theories and clinic experiences of the Tibetan and Chinese medicine, and pushed itself into a new stage of development. In the medical theories, basing on the ancient Mongolian doctor’s initial medical theory, they kept sorting out and making progress, and formed many doctrines, like Yin and Yang doctrine, five elements doctrine, chills and fever is a unity of opposites doctrine, seven element and three dirt doctrine, six cause dialectical doctrine, internal organs and main and collateral channels doctrine and so on. There were also many famous experts in medical science, like Naoerji Moergen, Zhanbula, Yixibalazhuer, Zhanbuladaoerji, yourigedandaer and so on.
There were also dozens of famous medical works included the Sea of Prescribes, Four Amrita, the Formal Dictionary of Mongolian Medicine, the Brook of Amrita, An Outline of Examining Pulses, New White Dew Treatment, Selections from Mongolian Medicine etc. In the Formal Dictionary of Mongolian Medicine, 879 kinds of medicine were described with 576 illustrations. At the same time, the division of departments in clinic practice became more and more detailed, department of orthopedics, department of internal medicine, department of epidemic, department of infectious disease, department of gynecology and obstetrics, department of pediatrics, department of dermatology and department of facial features had all been divided into a separate department.
After PRC was founded, the Mongolian treatment and medical industry has developed greatly. Dozens of Mongolian hospitals, Chinese Mongolian hospitals, Mongolian medicine research centers and Mongolian medicine colleges were built in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. The Mongolian medical treatment institution and several Mongolian medicine pharmaceutical factories are able to produce over 350 kinds of Mongolian preparation and patent medicine.